asthma and allergy sufferers

How is cow’s milk allergy different to lactose intolerance?
Lactose intolerance is when the body has trouble digesting lactose (the natural sugar found in milk). It can cause symptoms including diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach pain and gas (wind or bloating). It is different to cow's milk allergy, which is when the immune system reacts to protein in milk. Lactose intolerance does not cause rashes or anaphylaxis.

How is cow’s milk allergy diagnosed?
The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is often obvious when symptoms occur within minutes of exposure. Skin prick allergen tests from your doctor can confirm the diagnosis. When symptoms are delayed, cow's milk allergy can be harder to diagnose. Not every child who has a positive allergy test will develop symptoms when exposed to milk.

The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy recommends you should speak to your doctor or specialist about the benefits and safety of allergen immunotherapy or before attempting any allergy testing or treatment.

How is cow’s milk allergy managed?
If you or your child are allergic to cow’s milk, you will need to remove all cow’s milk from your diet. This isn’t easy because milk is an ingredient in many foods, such as baked goods, cereals, chocolate, sweets, sausages, salad dressing and bread. It can also be found in some milk, cream and butter substitutes labelled ‘non-dairy’.

Follow your doctor’s instructions and check food labels very carefully. Watch out for other words used to describe milk on food labels, such as butter, buttermilk, cream, curd, ghee, milk, cheese, dairy, milk solids, whey, yoghurt, casein and caseinates.

Some labels warn that the food "may contain traces of milk". This usually means the food is made in a facility that also makes a food containing milk. Talk to your doctor about whether it is safe to eat those foods.

You may also need to avoid milk from other animals, such as goats and sheep milk – 90% of children will react to these milks if they have cow’s milk allergy.

If you or your child has a cow’s milk allergy, it’s important to have a personal action plan to manage an allergic reaction. Your doctor may prescribe an adrenaline (epinephrine) autoinjector. For more information on anaphylaxis, including setting up a personal action plan, go to

Alternatives to cow’s milk
It’s important to important to find alternative sources of calcium.

For children aged up to 1 year, these include:

soy protein formula, which most babies who are allergic to cow’s milk will tolerate and is usually only recommended in babies aged over 6 months
cow’s milk based extensively hydrolysed formula (EHF) – this formula has been treated to break down most of the cow’s milk proteins, but it is not suitable for babies who have had anaphylaxis to cow’s milk
rice protein based formula
amino acid based formula
For children aged over 1 year, soy milk is the preferred alternative. Your doctor and/or dietitian may recommend rice, oat or nut milks, depending on your child’s condition.

Alternative milks enriched with calcium must contain cheapest abilify around 120mg/100mL to be a suitable cow’s milk replacement.

Talk to your doctor or a dietitian about cow’s milk alternatives for your child.

This factsheet from The Royal Children’s Hospital lists alternative foods to cow’s milk.

Follow the links below to find trusted information about allergic reactions to cow's milk.An allergy can occur when your immune system reacts to substances (called allergens) that are harmless for most people. In affected people, allergies can trigger conditions such as asthma and hay fever, skin conditions such as eczema, eye conditions such as conjunctivitis. You can have an allergic reaction to many different substances, including medications, substances in our environment such as pollens, and foods, such as eggs, seafood or nuts.

Allergy testing is important in managing allergies, as testing indicates what you are allergic to. Testing will also help a doctor advise on the best ways to avoid these allergens.

Who should have allergy testing?
You may benefit from allergy testing if you suffer from asthma or hay fever, or if you have a reaction to insect stings or certain foods. Testing can detect allergies to dust mites, animal dander, mould spores, pollens, certain foods, some insect stings, chemicals and even certain medications.

Who should perform allergy testing?
It is important that allergy tests are carried out and interpreted by trained health professionals. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist immunologist or allergist if a more complicated assessment is needed. It is important that the results of allergy tests are assessed alongside your medical history.

Some alternative practitioners offer allergy tests and treatments. These tests are often expensive and may be of little or no use in correctly detecting allergies.

Types of allergy tests
The most common forms of allergy tests are the skin prick tests and the blood tests.

If you have skin prick testing, you will be pricked on the arm or back a number of times, with a tiny amount of allergen dropped onto the pinprick. If you are allergic, where you were pricked will become swollen and itchy. This generally subsides within 2 hours. Although skin prick testing can be uncomfortable, most people find it tolerable. The results are available within 20 minutes.

Blood tests can be also used to test for allergies. They may be used when skin testing is not suitable, such as for people who have severe eczema or who are taking medications that may interfere with the test.

Other, less common allergy tests include:

intradermal skin testing
patch testing
and oral allergen testingAllergic disease is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the world. People with a family history of allergies have an allopurinol cost increase risk of developing allergic disease. Hay fever (allergic rhinitis), eczema, hives, asthma, and food allergy are some types of allergic diseases. Allergy symptoms can range from mild to a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).

Allergic reactions begin in your immune system. When a harmless substance such as dust, mold, or pollen is encountered by a person who is allergic to that substance, the immune system may over react by producing antibodies that "attack" the allergen. The can cause wheezing, itching, runny nose, watery or itchy eyes, and other symptoms.

What is the immune system?
The purpose of the immune system is to defend itself and keep microorganisms, such as certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi, out of the body, and to destroy any infectious microorganisms that do invade the body. The immune system is made up of a complex and vital network of cells and organs that protect the body from infection.

The organs involved with the immune system are called the lymphoid organs. They affect growth, development, and the release of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). The blood vessels and lymphatic vessels are important parts of the lymphoid organs. They carry the lymphocytes to and from different areas in the body. Each lymphoid organ plays a role in the production and activation of lymphocytes.

Lymphoid organs include:

Adenoids (two glands located at the back of the nasal passages)

Appendix (a small tube that is connected to the large intestine)

Blood vessels (the arteries, veins, and how to buy abilify 20mg capillaries through which blood flows)

Bone marrow (the soft, fatty tissue found in bone cavities)

Lymph nodes (small organs shaped like beans, which are located throughout the body and connect via the lymphatic vessels)

Lymphatic vessels (a network of channels throughout the body that carries lymphocytes to the lymphoid organs and bloodstream)

Peyer's patches (lymphoid tissue in the small intestine)

Spleen (a fist-sized organ located in the abdominal cavity)

Thymus (two lobes that join in front of the trachea behind the breast bone)

Tonsils (two oval masses in the back of the throat)

How does a person become allergic?
Allergens can be inhaled, ingested, or enter through the skin. Common allergic reactions, such as hay fever, certain types of asthma, and hives are linked to an antibody produced by the body called immunoglobulin E (IgE). Each IgE antibody can be very specific, reacting against certain pollens and other allergens. In other words, a person can be allergic to one type of pollen, but not another. When a susceptible person is exposed to an allergen, the body starts producing a large quantity of similar IgE antibodies. The next exposure to the same allergen may result in an allergic reaction. Symptoms of an allergic reaction will vary depending on the type and amount of allergen encountered and the manner in which the body's immune system reacts to that allergen.

Allergies can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Generally, allergies are more common in children. However, a first-time occurrence can happen at any age, or recur after many years of remission. Hormones, stress, smoke, perfume, or environmental irritants may also play a role in the development or severity of allergies.

What is anaphylactic shock?
Anaphylactic shock, also called anaphylaxis, is a severe, life-threatening reaction to certain allergens. Body tissues may swell, including tissues in the throat. Anaphylactic shock is also characterized by a sudden drop in blood pressure. The following are the most common symptoms of anaphylactic shock. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Other symptoms may include:

Itching and hives over most of the body

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